Presently, Golang has limited support of reflection comparing to the mainstream languages like C# and JAVA. It’s not intended to match or beat that languages.

In practice, we are using StructTag to add some metadata for the defined struct fields. Such an example is json package, where you can customize the field marshaling.

In example below, we customize the json representation of User struct fields:

type User struct {
  ID         string    `json:"id"`
  Name       string    `json:"name"`
  CreatedAt  time.Time `json:"created_at"`
  UpdatedAt  time.Time `json:"updated_at"`

The struct above is marshalled to the following JSON object:

data, err := json.Marshal(&User{
	ID:        "root",
	Name:      "Phogo Robot",
	UpdatedAt: time.Now(),
	CreatedAt: time.Now(),
  "id": "root",
  "name": "Phogo Robot",
  "created_at": "2009-11-10T23:00:00Z",
  "updated_at": "2009-11-10T23:00:00Z"

Internally, the JSON package uses StructTag to read the json metadata and marshal fields based on that. However, presently the tags cannot be declared more than once per field. They are unique, which make sense in most cases.

At Phogo Labs, we faced that limitation when in development of sqlutil package for which we we will talk about in some of the next articles.

Briefly, sqlutil is lightweight minimalistic ORM package that allows CRUD operations and creation of tables (including constraints and indexes).

So we thought that will be much friendly if we allow the package user to define multiple SQL indexes by using tags. However, one column can be in more than one index.

So we wanted this:

type User struct {
  ID         string    `sqlindex:"search_idx"`
  Name       string    `sqlindex:"name" sqlindex:"search_indx"`

Fortunately, Golang is completely open source and didn’t have to reinvent the wheel to accomplish that. By changing the original implementation we accomplished the following:

package sqlutil

import (

type Tag reflect.StructTag

func (tag Tag) Get(key string) []string {
	v, _ := tag.Lookup(key)
	return v

func (tag Tag) Lookup(key string) ([]string, bool) {
	// When modifying this code, also update the validateStructTag code
	// in cmd/vet/structtag.go.

	exist := false
	values := []string{}

	for tag != "" {
		// Skip leading space.
		i := 0
		for i < len(tag) && tag[i] == ' ' {
		tag = tag[i:]
		if tag == "" {

		i = 0
		for i < len(tag) && tag[i] > ' ' && tag[i] != ':' && tag[i] != '"' && tag[i] != 0x7f {
		if i == 0 || i+1 >= len(tag) || tag[i] != ':' || tag[i+1] != '"' {
		name := string(tag[:i])
		tag = tag[i+1:]

		// Scan quoted string to find value.
		i = 1
		for i < len(tag) && tag[i] != '"' {
			if tag[i] == '\\' {
		if i >= len(tag) {
		qvalue := string(tag[:i+1])
		tag = tag[i+1:]

		if key == name {
			exist = true
			value, err := strconv.Unquote(qvalue)
			if err != nil {

			values = append(values, value)

	return values, exist

The code can be found here.

The LICENSE is removed in the code snippet above in order to lower its size.

So how to use it? Well, in the same way as the original implementation:

type User struct {
	ID string `sqlindex:"gopher" sqlindex:"blue"`

u := User{}
typ := reflect.TypeOf(u)
field := typ.Field(0)
tags:= field.Tag.Get("sqlindex")


We are looking for any other crazy ideas. Say HI